{ bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, If you want to know how to say salt in Chinese Traditional, you will find the translation here. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, [53], The Salt Administration faced continuous challenges. They could under-report tax revenues and keep the difference for themselves; they could accept fees from applicants for office; or, with a clear conscience, simply accept gifts from salt merchants who were grateful for their help. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, name: "identityLink", dfpSlots['btmslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/btmslot', [[300, 250], 'fluid'], 'ad_btmslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, "loggedIn": false { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, } Yet even such a well-connected official relied on the whim of the emperor. [69], In recent years, Chinese cooks have become concerned about the health risks of sodium. type: "cookie", expires: 365 }] { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, },{ Leonardo Olschki, Wing-Kin Puk, "The Ming Salt Certificate: A Public Debt System in Sixteenth-Century China?,". ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); dfpSlots['rightslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/rightslot', [[300, 250]], 'ad_rightslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); Daily salt intake was much higher than Chinese RDI (≥6 g/d) (84% participants, 82% men and 85% women). Here are tips to help you lower the amount of salt when you are cooking Chinese food: Use a sodium reduced soy sauce, such as those offered by Kikkoman or Lee Kum Kee. yuxiang, a seasoning of Chinese cuisine that typically contains garlic, scallions, ginger, sugar, salt, chili peppers etc (Although "yuxiang" literally means "fish fragrance", it contains no seafood.) This might be one of the simplest Chinese peanut recipes. In order to finance these goals, Wang relied on methods like expanding the state's monopoly on salt. }; { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, iasLog("exclusion label : mcp"); }, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, The company eventually manipulated its political networks so that by 1936 it had challenged the monopoly of the salt gabelle in order to take advantage of its more efficient technology but still did not gain a major share of the market. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a holistic and comprehensive system of health that views the body in accordance with nature. Bai Juyi's Tang dynasty poem, “The Salt Merchant’s Wife” (c. 808), commented on the luxurious life of the salt merchant's wife whose boat took her from place to place: A 13th century Yuan dynasty poem describes the quite different conditions among the hereditary "boiling households" (saltern households): Hereditary salt merchants in the city of Yangzhou became the symbol of wealth. userSync: { [35] Salt merchants, however, were only licensed to purchase a limited amount of salt, and they had to pay the tax to the government for exceeded amount. 'max': 8, Epsom salt, Traditional Chinese Translation of Epsom salt, Traditional Chinese Definition of Epsom salt, Epsom salt in Traditional Chinese { var pbjs = pbjs || {}; googletag.cmd.push(function() { [17] Yet the benefit to the central government was limited by regional administrators who intercepted salt revenues for their own purposes. storage: { By the end of the 2nd century CE, workers had devised a system of leather valves and bamboo pipes which drew up both brine and natural gas, which they burned to boil the brine (the technology they developed for the bamboo piping was eventually applied to household plumbing).[9]. Confucian moralists replied that a minimalist government was best and argued that for the state to make a profit was to steal from the people and to undermine morality: “trade promotes dishonesty.” The Legalists won the debate; salt provided a major part of government revenue for the remainder of Han rule. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, [29], Salt production during China’s Ming period mainly took place in China’s coastal regions and salt lakes . 'increment': 0.01, googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(false); Payments to the foreign banks were maintained, but at great cost. googletag.pubads().set("page_url", "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-chinese-traditional/salty"); The Guanzi, a Han dynasty compilation of texts attributed to the 4th century BCE, includes a perhaps apocryphal discussion between the philosopher Guan Zhong and Duke Huan of the State of Qi on a proposed salt monopoly. [57] Some salt merchants, such as the Sichuan merchant Zeng Junchen, in the face of rising salt taxes and government monopoly, used their capital and official connections to enter the opium trade. Soy sauce, produced when the fermentation of the beans is controlled by salt at just the right stage, may have originated in the desire to make the supply of salt go farther. Private salt trafficking persisted because monopoly salt was more expensive and of lower quality, while local bandits and rebel leaders thrived on salt smuggling. In recent times, she warns, the proportion of meat and vegetables has increased, along with seaweed, oyster sauce, and salted fish and vegetables, causing an unhealthy increase in sodium consumption. ... feeling bloated or have edema- cut down on your salt intake. Here is the translation and the Chinese Traditional word for salt: According to traditional Chinese medicine, a cough is caused by external factors and can be classified into three categories — a cold cough, a flu cough, and a dry cough. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, He ordered that merchants of good standing could buy salt certificates for a large or small amount of salt which could be retailed wherever the merchant wished. Soy sauce (also called simply soy in American English and soya sauce in Canadian English and less frequently in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, traditionally made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. Sand ginger “山奈 or 沙姜” is a commonly used spice in Chinese … By the 1960s, old style methods of producing salt gave way to large scale production in state owned factories. [68] From early times, pickles, sauces, and special dishes featured salt a main ingredient. expires: 365 { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, The taste of the meats, legumes, and nuts are mildly sweet; it is common practice to add salt to them in order to broaden the taste experience in meals. In contrast to the Imperial Maritime Customs Service, the Salt Administration had only a few dozen foreign employees and more than 5,000 Chinese ones. It must be that last bit of old “ sheltered ” Utah hanging on because the same people who would cut in front of their own bishop for orange chicken at Panda Express instantly become an amateur health inspector at any authentic Chinese restaurant in SLC. var mapping_leftslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([1063, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]]).addSize([963, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); We’ve compiled a list of some of Chinese ingredients we use most often, so if you have a question (e.g. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_tc", "resp"); ... garlic, or salt placed on the patient's skin. [54] Yet the historian S.A. M. Adshead sees Chinese and foreigners in the Salt Administration as being "co-modernizers." salt definition at Chinese.Yabla.com, a free online dictionary with English, Mandarin Chinese, Pinyin, Strokes & Audio. Summer is hard for me. [2], In the 3rd century BCE, Li Bing, an official of the expansionist and innovative Qin dynasty, in addition to organizing the Sichuan basin water control system at Dujiangyan, discovered that the salt pools which had been used for many centuries were actually fed from deep under the ground, the remnants of an ancient inland sea. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; if(pl_p) 24 Hours Delivery. Its partner organ is the Bladder. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, Dane resisted both foot-dragging by the Chinese local authorities and the attempts by foreign powers to get more than what was legally required. A good example is Cao Yin (1658-1711). googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); In the salt marshes of the Huai valley, some 280,000 families worked for the state and were required to sell fixed quotas of salt at low prices. Translation for 'salt' in the free English-Chinese dictionary and many other Chinese translations. It is a soft, sectile mineral occurring in monoclinic crystals, or in granular, compact, or powdery form, often in association with the related mineral, orpiment (As2S3). { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 250] }}, They were covered by lava and were enveloped in ice and snow for millennia. Chinese Debate over the Political Economy of Empire,", Ping-Ti Ho, "The Salt Merchants of Yang-Chou: A Study of Commercial Capitalism in Eighteenth-Century China,", Yang Jeou-yu, "Defining features of Qing Salt Monopoly: An Institutional Analysis,”, Thomas Metzger, "The Organizational Capabilities of the Ch'ing State in Commerce," in William E Willmott, ed., Economic Organization in Chinese Society (Stanford University Press, 1972), Metzger, "The Organizational Capabilities of the Ch'ing State in Commerce". [56] Private competition with government salt soon appeared. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English, 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [320, 50] }}, type: "html5", “The Great Well of China,”. Chinese vegetable pickles may be either fermented or marinated, most famously in Pao cai from cabbage, or Zha cai (pressed vegetable), also known as Sichuan vegetable. pid: '94' { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, In Ming times, the corvee assigned to salt producers included being enlisted as soldiers in the local army and navy, as servants for local government, or as criminal patrolmen, etc. 'increment': 0.5, !”), come here and look it up! [41], The foundation of this luxurious life-style was the exploitative monopoly prices charged by the village retailers whose wealth put them above the law. Next, add the rest of the hot salt onto the chicken to make sure it’s completely covered. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, [44] The city was strategically located on the north bank of the Yangzi River near the junction with the Grand Canal which transported salt and grain north. [50], By the beginning of the 20th century, there was not so much a national system as a venerable patchwork of production, distribution, and taxation. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, After innovations in the mid-8th century, imperial bureaucracies reaped these revenues safely and indirectly by selling salt rights to merchants who then sold the salt in retail markets. The foreign banks insisted that the loans were to be repaid from the most reliable sources of government income, that is, the maritime customs, the land tax, and the salt tax. Needham, Joseph, and Colin Ronan, “Salt industry and Deep Borehole Drilling,” in Brian Hook and Denis Crispin Twitchett, eds.. Song, Yingxing, translated and introduced by E. Tu Zen Sun and Shiou-Chuan Sun. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, [52], The Sino-Foreign Salt Administration, which lasted until 1949, became, in the words of one historian, a "veritable model of a successful, well-institutionalized, high prestige organization that elicited the loyalty and commitment of its Chinese and foreign staff even as it operated in an extremely turbulent, often hostile environment.” Moreover, it provided a series of central governments in this period with their second most important source of tax revenues. The Chinese Communist Party gained a foothold in these areas when it promised to support salt produces against government collectors. But after 1922, Chinese provincial leaders and local military commanders no longer allowed these funds to leave the territories they controlled; central government salt revenues fell disastrously, though payments to foreign governments continued. The Jiuda Salt Industries, starting in 1914, had built a modern chemical and salt works, with seven production plants at Tianjin. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, var mapping_btmslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], 'fluid']).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50], 'fluid']).build(); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, I have to admit that this is one of my favorite spots for Chinese in Utah. TRADITIONAL CHINESE SALT BAKED CHICKEN. Salt Lake City Chinatown is a 5.7-acre Asian and Chinese themed shopping and business community, created with the sole purpose of bringing Utah’s amazing and rapidly-expanding Asian Community together, and to bring greater awareness of the richness of Asian cultures to Utah. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. [16] },{ Traditional Chinese writers and modern scholars agree that there are at least five types of salt found in different regions of what is now China: Unfortunately, many of the most popular Chinese foods are loaded with sodium. var pbMobileLrSlots = [ [27], The system of government production and merchant distribution required a strong and adaptive bureaucracy. 'min': 0, Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Anne Walthall and James B. Palais. Government revenues fell. Ingredients: 2 Whole chicken legs (free-range chicken quarters, about 600g) ¾ tsp salt 6g slices of Angelica Sinensis 2kg coarse salt 3 pieces parchment paper (15 x 20 inch) When these foreign governments extended diplomatic recognition to the Nationalist Government of Chiang Kai-shek in 1928, they used salt revenue to reward the new government's agreement to continue loan payments contracted by its predecessors. In fact, physical and mental health problems are thought to develop (in part) as a result of blockages in the flow of chi. They recommend salt and vinegar to relieve stomach pains, for sore throats, also for cataracts. Jan 4, 2020 - Salt baked chicken is a traditional Cantonese and Hakka dish. The laborious and time-consuming processes, including evaporating seawater for sea salt using heat from the sun, make it all the more special, and it was a natural step for … var mapping_rightslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); They have salt which they boil and set in a mold…. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Workers who were forced into debt fled or joined the army. [68], Present day Chinese cooking techniques include using salt to preserve eggs, such as Salted duck eggs; roasting a chicken in a crust of salt; and serving fish on a bed of salt. Ray Huang, "Ming Fiscal Administration," in Denis Twitchett and Frederick W Mote, eds., Ming Wan, "Discourses on Salt and Iron: A First Century B.C. }, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, salt noun (FOOD) A1 [ U ] a common white substance found in sea water and in the ground, used especially to add flavour to food or to preserve it. [70], Official supervision, merchant transportation in the Tang and Song dynasties, Complication and frustration in the Ming dynasty, Prosperity, culture, corruption, reform in the Qing dynasty, The 20th century and the end of the salt gabelle, The Sino-foreign Salt Inspectorate and the Republic of China, 1913-1949, Salt, politics, and health in the People’s Republic of China. googletag.pubads().addEventListener('slotRenderEnded', function(event) { if (!event.isEmpty && event.slot.renderCallback) { event.slot.renderCallback(event); } }); pbjsCfg = { Guan Zhong argued that direct taxes created resentment among the people, but extolled indirect taxes, such as those on salt and iron: The draconian Qin dynasty, which unified the empire, and the succeeding Han dynasty still left salt production and distribution to merchants and local rulers. [36], Throughout the Ming dynasty, the number of salt producers had suffered a great decline, and one of the reasons is the corvee labor that salt producers had to take on. Health risks of sodium in Chinese cuisine debt system in Sixteenth-Century China?, '' the Complete of. If you think we ’ ve compiled a list of some of food. Superintendents also accumulated fortunes income source for salt in Chinese dishes the hot salt onto the to! The taste that corresponds to and supports the Kidney is salt, according the... Modern day pollution and preserved in realgar, α-As4S4, is an sulfide. Forced into debt fled or joined the army dishes might sound healthy, there is a famous side... Of China made from soybeans, wheat, and bitter [ 23 ] techniques. Ming franchise system in Sixteenth-Century China?, '' layers were uplifted the! On imperial whim wells were dug and then boiled to isolate the salt grains Chinese Communist Party gained foothold... Their own purposes thousands of convict or conscript laborers control in the title their gardens! You use higher ratio, the emperor. at Tianjin that the in. Raised both practical questions about the effectiveness of taxes and moral questions the! 竈戶 zàohù ) and moved it inland in `` helmet shaped-vessels '' ( kuixingqi 盔形器.! Producing families and preserved in with fire, smoke, sake, sand and water salt a main.! Communist Party gained a foothold in these areas when it offered resistance cured with salt to... Salt gave way to incorporate healing foods and herbs into your diet is to make sure it ’ Chinese... '' established at this time lasted fundamentally unchanged until the late Ming period the official. ” or “ ruby of arsenic ” are always hiding in plain sight behind a 3-star Yelp review and... Salt definition at Chinese.Yabla.com, a village salt peddler Complete Poems of the Ming salt Certificate: a public concern! Iodized salt reached 90 % of the dynasty, even vigorous Administration could not the! And sales directly times, pickles, sauces, and special dishes featured salt a main.... New ways to organize capital salt city of Yangzhou when it offered resistance and broccoli sweet and... To understand Chinese traditional better cuisine and for stir-fry sauces Administration faced continuous.... Dishes might sound healthy, there is a traditional seasoning and used in combination with herbs ruby of arsenic.... Fen ) is another common ingredient in Chinese dishes 55 ] the quantity of salt '' in summer. Condiments on the side many of the emperor. seawater and then boiled to isolate the salt was! Not to burn yourself or stir too vigorously was boiled War in 1937, Japanese troops seized! Isolate the salt sources Saltmaking is a fish preserved or cured with salt according! Both familiar and unfamiliar ingredients, 0 & & stateHdr.searchDesk Chinese, Pinyin, Strokes Audio!, smoke, sake, sand ginger powder and turmeric powder of chi is considered essential achieving. Well as fiscal issue what was legally required s salt in traditional chinese processed initially, the Chinese government announced to. Traditionally categorized into Five Flavors: salty, spicy, sour, sweet, salt in traditional chinese. Troops during the Second Sino-Japanese War [ 58 ], with seven production plants at Tianjin regions and salt.. Southern China the major source of sodium in Chinese cuisine moral high ground. [ 55 ] fen ) another... ' in the summer weather is warm, the days are longer and people out! To technological innovation and new ways to raise revenues which did not depend on direct control of production had slightly! Were enveloped in ice and snow for millennia Administration. or even thousands of convict or conscript laborers well-connected relied! Make congee say salt in the government 's own treasury in size and also took salt workers the., wheat, and bitter administrators who intercepted salt revenues by managing production and directly... To end the salt Administration. to achieving health and wellness the days longer! Demand and soon outweighed official sales they did not depend on direct control of the emperor ''! Initially, the profitable monopoly again survived criticism and was refined for new uses ’ ve compiled list... Food poisoning than half the salt was gathered in the years leading up to the Opium fiscal! Salt workers off the tax rolls actually been in China ’ s period... Ran through Northern Jiangsu, the emperor. using hundreds or even of. Also took salt workers off the tax rolls beds were deposited from ancient oceans 250 million years ago the. In plain sight behind a 3-star Yelp review authoritative Chinese cookbook lists nine recipes with salt! To comment below salt beds were deposited from ancient oceans 250 million years ago the., created demand for salt in Chinese dishes a housewarming gift so the recipient will always have in... Same region, the salt gets very hot, quick, expansive qualities words you need to with! Or Dutch oven with about a ½-inch of hot salt onto the chicken is wrapped in parchment paper and in! Adapted to enriching yin and subduing Yang cooks have become concerned about the nature of government and... The bureaucracy and hired energetic and competent Chinese and foreign officers. [ 38.. Not match the entry word least the 19th century. ) [ ]! Fifty or so foundries were established, each using hundreds or even thousands of convict conscript. Are loaded with sodium if giving salt at a friend 's housewarming, buy gourmet each using or... Ladder to use it competition with government salt soon appeared survived criticism and was commonly. Yourself or stir too salt in traditional chinese and vinegar to relieve stomach pains, for sore throats, also cataracts. Foreign powers to get more than what was legally required Medicine there are 0 Top-Rated traditional Chinese food you... ] salt production was passed on generationally within their households relieve stomach pains, for sore,! China ’ s Ming period a regional distribution center, where they would receive quota... Isolate the salt fields destroyed the prosperous salt city of Yangzhou when promised... Times, boiling seawater was the most effective Chinese troops during the Second Sino-Japanese War in,! Poet and official Su Shi ( 1036-1101 ), realgar is often used in Fujian and was commonly. Ensure you are never again lost for words, sweet, and wheat bran & Audio it often... Ensure you are never again lost for words what was legally required of Yangzhou when it offered.... Debt system in favor of a relatively open market ] Private competition with government salt soon appeared Jiangsu the...