Do you want to receive updates and the most interesting articles every day? The country imports AS for the tea estates and sodium nitrate for tobacco. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Fertilizer manufacturers usually produce different fertilizer grades depending on the market (turf vs. forages). Although phosphate-based fertilizer has high- er acidity, they are applied less often and in smaller quantities than N based fertilizers. Fertilizer is made of three nutrients that vary in proportion depending on the type of fertilizer. Fertilizer Analysis: Percent composition of a fertilizer expressed as (Total N – Available P2O5 – Soluble K2O). Another property to consider when selecting a fertilizer source is the amount of soluble salt in the fertilizer. These zinc sources are purified and chemically altered to … Finally, the selection of a nitrogen fertilizer source should be based on the cost per pound of N and the potential for volatilization losses. A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.Many sources of fertilizer exist, both natural and industrially produced. Proximate composition of commonly used natural foods Table 46. Keep in mind that nutriment removal will increase as yield production increases. As a slow-release fertilizer, bone meal is primarily used as a source of phosphorus and protein. In many situations, the cheapest fertilizer cost or the fertilizer with a higher N grade might not be the best option. §25-61-19, This site was last modified on: Dec-22-2020 5:25 pmhttp://extension.msstate.edu/newsletters/forage-news/2020/understanding-your-fertilizer-types-and-composition-0, Grazing Systems, hay production, forage fertility, forage quality and utilization, alfalfa productio, Native grasses, forages, ... of organic matter must be applied to achieve the same nutrient input possible with a much smaller amount of chemical fertilizer. Do you want to receive updates and interesting articles every day? Be the first to know, don't miss the important! A wide range of products, supplying one or more essential mineral nu-trients, are available to farmers. What Does NPK Stand for on Fertilizer Bags? Fertilizer composition information and equation used to convert price per ton to price per pound. These three nutrients are listed on the front of the bag as a ratio of percentages. The solubility of some commonly used fertilizers is presented in Table 1. Table 11 gives statistics on the production, import, export and consumption of fertilizer nutrients from 1990 to 2002. • Today most P fertilizer production is based on acidification of apatite. A cashew tree bearing 24 kg nuts and 155 kg apples removes annually 2.85 kg N, 0.35 kg P 2 O 5, and 1.26 kg K 2 O through uptake by root, stem, nut, and apple (Mohapatra et al., 1973). All tables; Georgia. If not, please select your country. from phosphate rock (PR) Guano mining, Chincha Islands, Peru, 1860 Guano mining, Chincha Islands, Peru 1860 U.S. phosphate operation, late 1800s. Code Ann. Nitrogen Fertilizers Anhydrous ammonia (82%N) is a liquid under high pressure and must be injected at least six inches deep into a moist soil because it becomes a gas once it Soil is a natural body of finely divided rocks,minerals and organic matter. Since nitrogen fertilizer provided around half of the nutrient in this harvested crop, he estimated that it provided 40 percent of dietary protein in the mid-1990s. Either approach will have an economic impact on your farm. Phosphorus tends to be very stable in the soil and it is required in lower quantities than N and K. Nitrogen is needed for biomass production, increase leaf growth, and increase crude protein. For information about the website contact webteam@ext.msstate.edu. The P2O5 actually contains 43.6% P (0.436) and K2O is 83% K (0.83). Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. The Tables do not aim to cover foods consumed in urban areas of The The Composition of Fertilizers. Analysis / composition: 22.5% P (52% P 2 O 5), 28% K (34% K 2 O) Formula: KH2PO4 . Please enter your email and you will receive the latest news from us! Fertilizer application (by volume) Since it is difficult for most home owners to weigh a fertilizer… It is also important to select the appropriate fertilizer source(s) to supply the needed nutrient at a lower cost. Table 1. §25-61-19, Understanding Your Fertilizer Types and Composition. It is recommended that to apply 60 units of N per acre in split applications (after green-up) and mid-summer after the second grazing cycle. All figures, except for water (as percentage), are given as grams per 100 grams of dry matter. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. In the past it was thought that applying fertilizer N at the time of sowing was beneficial for early growth of the crop and ‘seedbed’ applications were recommended. Home | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations These recommendations provide for building soil fertility levels when soil samples show that the nutrient levels are low and maintaining high levels when the high fertility has been achieved. The best way to select a fertilizer grade is to have your soil tested. For example, using local fertilizer prices for urea ($382/ton, $0.61/lb N), ammonium nitrate ($350/ton, $0.51/lb N), urea ammonium sulfate ($415/ton, $0.63/lb N), and 32% UAN solution ($294/ton). That is also a reason why a soil test recommendation has a three-year plan. For more information on Yara-specific issues please see Yara’s quarterly and Capital Markets Day presentations. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. A high concentration of soluble salts can cause plant injury and prevent seed germination. For example, 1 kg of triple superphosphate is equal in phosphorus content to … Leave your email and always receive new articles in our weekly newsletter. By: ... A 100-pound bag of 15-15-15 grade fertilizer contains 15 pounds of each primary nutrient and 55 pounds of filler. composition was studied using soil from three eleva-tions in Sri Lanka (pH 4.2, 5.2 and 7) and compared with that of a commercial fertilizer. The tables include values for net energy (expressed as UFC: Forage unit for horse) and for digestible protein (MADC). Download adobe Acrobat or click here to download the PDF file. These cookies do not store any personal information. Fertilization in forage systems can account for the large cost of maintaining pastures or increasing hay production. They include values about more than 200 feeds of plant and animal origin and 100 mineral sources. Soil is a natural body of finely divided rocks,minerals and organic matter. By subscribing to the newsletter you agree with Privacy Policy & Terms and Conditions. Figure 2 indicates that the highest amount of acidity is not necessarily created by nitrogen source, but amount and number of applications. Nutrient removal, especially in hay production, can be estimated by using the average nutrient content of the forage species and the yield produced per acre. Implications of Herbicide Applications on Replanting Decisions, Strategic Points for Developing a Grazing Management Plan, Annual Ryegrass—Staple for Winter Grazing in the South, Legislative Update: Miss. Your success is our goal, you could receive special offers and start saving up to 60% on your fertilization costs! Fertilizer ratio is the ratio of weight percent of N-P2O5-K2O and is determined by dividing the three numbers by the smallest of the three. The nutrient composition of the most commonly consumed rural Gambian foods as prepared by Mandinka people is given in the Food Composition Table. Grade: 13-0-46. These are the major building blocks of all fertilizers and make up the bulk of all fertilizer produced. On average, world farmers apply some 180 million tons of fertilizers (on a nutrient basis) annually to supple-ment nutrient … THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER WHY FERTILIZE Soils need fertility maintenance. Sand, silt, clay and organic matter help provide tilth, necessary aeration and favorable water intake rates, but they seldom maintain adequate plant food to sustain continuous healthy plant growth. 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For example, urea can have volatilization losses as high as 20 to 30% in warm temperatures with no rainfall at application time or soon after. Developing a well-managed and efficient forage fertilization program that can increase profitability routinely depends on soil testing as well as maintain records of the applied fertilizers and nutrient removal. These letters are also associated with three numbers that represent an N-P-K ratio and the proportion of each nutrient in the same order (N-P-K). Analysis / composition: 18.5% N-NO3, 18.5% N-NH4, Analysis / composition: 21% N-NH4, 73% SO4, Analysis / composition: 19% N-NH4, 7% N-NO3, 14.5% S-SO4, Analysis / composition: 14.4% N-NO3, 1.1% N-NH4, 19% Ca, Analysis / composition: 11% N-NO3, 9.6% Mg, Analysis / composition: 9.1% Mg, 14% S (42% SO4), Fertilizer: Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP), Analysis / composition: 12% N-NH4, 26.5% P (61% P2O5), Fertilizer: Mono Potassium Phosphate (MKP), Analysis / composition: 22.5% P (52% P2O5), 28% K (34% K2O), Analysis / composition: 13% N-NO3, 38% K (46% K2O), Analysis / composition: 43% K (52% K2O), 18% S (54% SO4). Potassium (K) enhances overall growth while helping to regulate root and top growth and in-creasing plant protection to pest resistance and drought and cold tolerance. See the Documentation for definitions and list of fertilizer products and their composition. In order words, that 100-bag contains 34 lbs of nitrogen (0.34 x 100 = 34), 46 lbs of phosphorus (0.46 x 100 = 46), and 60 lbs of potassium (0.60 x 100 = 60). Table 1 contains the chemical analysis of these and other fertilizer materials. 1). The chemical symbol for the element phosphorus is P. The fertilizer industry often uses the more generic term phosphate. By law, any nutrient added to the bag must be listed as well. Recommends the ideal fertilizer mixture/ blends, Comprehensive data on hundreds of crop varieties, Interprets test results for any extraction method. This has been the experience in India as well. These are mostly cooked cereal foods and sauces, plus some of the main vegetables, fruits, fish and other foods. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. This means that the cost per acre for applying 50 lbs N/ac will be $30.50 for urea, $25.50 for ammonium nitrate, and $31.50 for urea ammonium sulfate, and $23.0 for UAN solution. Average concentrations of 13 soil-derived (mineral) nutrients in plant dry matter that are sufficient for adequate growth Table 3. A reason why urea is more suited for applications to cool-season grasses during the winter, spring, and late fall. Analysis / composition: 13% N-NO 3, 38% K (46% K 2 O) Formula: KNO3 . It is very important for us. ft., you will need: 4/0.18 x 10,000/1,000 = 222 pounds of ultra slow-release 18-5-12 fertilizer Eco When spreading the fertilizer, do not apply more than the calculated rate. You can reach world grade equaivalency via SteelOrbis grade equivalency table Amino acid composition of feedstuffs available in the Philippines Table 47. Have your soil tested to determine the amount of potassium that is naturally in the soil. Usually, these fertilizer grades can be formed by using only source (34-0-0, 46-0-0, 0-46-0, 0-0 -60) or by mixing two or more nutrient sources to form a blend (0-20-20, 18-46-0, 33-0-0S). Potassium fertilizer materials Table 7. Producers cannot overcome a lack of rainfall with increased fertilization. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be applied according to soil test recommendations (Table 1). Analysis / composition: 43% K (52% K 2 O), 18% S (54% SO 4) Sometimes producers are concerned with the production of acidity by the reaction of fertilizer materials, especially from N fertilizers. Table 45b Proximate composition of commonly used feed ingredients: Energy Table 45c. Fertilizer: Potassium Sulfate. The INRAE-CIRAD-AFZ feed tables contain chemical data, nutritional data and environmental data of feeds for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses and fish (salmonids). Nitrogen and potassium are usually required in larger quantities on forage systems than phosphorus because they can be taken up in larger quantities by the forage crop or lost through different processes. Prior to tomato planting, 160 kg hm −2 nitrogen (N) fertilizer, 120 kg hm −2 phosphate (P) fertilizer, and 320 kg hm −2 potassium (K) fertilizer were applied as base fertilizers. Fertilizer bags are labeled according to a system that shows the percentage of nutrients included. Soil test all fields on a 2 (hay) to 3-year (pasture) interval. However, N applications in the summer should be carefully timed with plenty of moisture along with choosing the correct nitrogen source to reduce losses. Bone meal is a mixture of finely and coarsely ground animal bones and slaughter-house waste products. We will be in touch with a special offer just for you! Conversions often are needed for pricing as well. Fertilizer use is an important factor for producing profitable forages and for maintaining soil nutrient balance over the years. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Food composition tables (2004) It is used as an organic fertilizer for plants and as a nutritional supplement for animals. THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER WHY FERTILIZE Soils need fertility maintenance. Fertilizer: Mono Potassium Phosphate (MKP) Grade: 0-52-34. Food composition tables (2012) German Nutrient Database: BLS online portal; Greece. Fatty acid composition of selected fats and lipids available in the Philippines Table … Beena et al. In Agriculture fertilizers are used to amend soil nutrients and can be crafted at the Farmer's Table. He concluded that 40 percent of the global population in 2000 were dependent on food production from synthetic fertilizers. Yara Fertilizer Industry Handbook This handbook describes the fertilizer industry and in particular the nitrogen part which is the most relevant for Yara. We regularly update our database of articles, and also work on the quality of materials. These tables include quantity and value of fertilizer imported by year, country, and product. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium make up the most important components of fertilizers and are all included in a complete fertilizer. Easily create your fertilization plan with our software, Start Using and Increase Your Harvest up to 40%, Do you want to read the whole article? The table below gives the chemical composition of selected, representative seaweeds, some of which are currently used for food or have been used as food in the past. The amount of nitrogen to be applied per unit should be based on expected yields and the rainfall pattern during the season along with split applications to increase utilization and efficiency. Functions and available forms of nutrients Table 4. They change the value of the primary plant nutrients: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K). It is also important to consider weather conditions (moisture, heat, and humidity) that can impact the potential for volatilization losses. For hay production, nitrogen applications of 50 units per acre per cut of hay should be sufficient when hay is cut in a 28 to 35-day cycle. fertilizer formulation of 18-5-10 with the recommended rate on the label of 4 pounds of N per 1,000 sq. The Composition of Fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizer materials Table 5. Conserve resources and … Soil characteristics and its relation with micronutrients availability, What is the relative humidity and how it affects your plants, Essentials of Fertilization & Irrigation Management for just £79. Table 2 shows that between 39 and 78% of the autumn-applied N was lost from the crop/soil system, almost certainly by nitrate leaching. Fruit and vegetable plants need potassium for the growth of their edible parts. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Thus, a 10-10-10 fertilizer contains 10 percent N, 10 percent P 2 O 5 and 10 percent K 2 O. Copyright © 2020 Mississippi State University Extension Service. It appears your Web browser is not configured to display PDF files. Code Ann. grazing management, Forage Nutritive Value on Livestock Production: Why CP and TDN Matter? Table 1 provides some information about the types of nitrogen sources that are available for use in forage production in Mississippi. Food Composition Tables (National Association of Nutritionists) 139 foods, 49 nutrients, 104 pages, in Georgian and English languages For more information contact Robizon Tsiklauri (2009) Germany. The first step to developing a fertility program for your forage system must always start with a soil sample to determine nutrient needs. Most zinc fertilizers are manufactured from residues and by-product streams of processes using primary zinc metal. For example, a bag of fertilizer with a 34-46-60 means that a 100-bag contains 34% nitrogen, 46% phosphorus, and 60% potassium by weight. The composition by percentage of each of the ‘big 3’ elements present in the fertilizer must be stated on the bag and is referred to as the fertilizer guarantee, which expresses each of elemental Application of fertilizers at the recommended rates usually do not have high levels of soluble salts to cause plant injury; however, when fertilizer is mixed with seed for planting, soluble salt levels that are high enough can cause seed embryo damage and reduce germination. See the Documentation for definitions and list of fertilizer products and their composition. All rights reserved. Table 1. Keep in mind that different forages have different nutrient contents. All rights reserved. Most fertilizer suppliers will have different fertilizer types available depending on the source, region, and environmental conditions for utilizing those fertilizer types. 2020 © SMART Fertilizer Software. Are you sure you want to leave? The document does not describe Yara or its strategies to a great extent. Please, leave your email to continue reading. Soil composition The fertilizer elements are present in various compounds (e.g., urea, ammonium nitrate, phosphoric acid, calcium phosphate, potassium chloride). UFC values are predicted from the chemical composition and from the digestible energy or digestible organic matter. In order words, that 100-bag contains 34 lbs of nitrogen (0.34 x 100 = 34), 46 lbs of phosphorus (0.46 x 100 = 46), and 60 lbs of potassium (0.60 x 100 = 60). We are like minded people, who stive to increase yields and save fertilizations costs, while being environmentally friendly! more commonly used N-P-K fertilizers. • Manufactured fertilizers are pro-duced by the fertilizer industry. Thus, 10–10–10 fertilizer units are equivalent to 10–4.36–8.3 units of actual N, P and K. Note that the application rates used in Table 3 were based on actual P and K from Table 4. The acidity of a fertilizer is usually expressed as the amount of pure lime that would be required to neutralize the acidity produced by the reaction of the fertilizer. Therefore, the elemental potassium percentage is 0.83 times the K value. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are called primary macronutrients because they are needed in large quantities to support forage production at profitable economic levels and to replace nutrients removed with each hay harvest. Note: The table is in Excel (.xls) format; each year of data is a separate tab in the workbook. Fertilizer application for cashew varies from one country to another, even so within the same country. Phosphorus (P) is essential for seed germination, strong root growth, and seed development. Every bag of fertilizer contains three names or abbreviations in the following order Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P2O5), and potassium (K2O) (Fig. By subscribing to the newsletter you agree with. By understanding the basics behind fertilizer labels, you can choose the right fertilizer type(s) for your forage system based on soil nutrient availability, forage crop, and expected yields. Your Location United Kingdom and Your Currency British Pound. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. But we are developing very fast, please give us your email and we will inform you by email when Tomatoes are included in our software. All fertilizer types must provide uniform information that will help forage producers to compare products. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. lbs fertilizer/100ft 2 x 100 ft of garden or lawn = lbs fertilizer for garden or lawn Example: 1.23 lbs fertilizer/100ft 2 x 2 (100) ft of garden or lawn = 2.46 lbs of 10-20-20 fertilizer 6. K. 2O consists of 17% oxygen and 83% elemental potassium by weight. Questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be directed to the Office of Compliance and Integrity. Fertilizer Description Nutrient Content Per Ton of Fertilizer; Urea – 46% N by weight: 920 lb N/ton: Ammonium Nitrate – 34% N by weight: 680 lb N/ton: Ammonium Sulfate – 21% N and 24% by weight: 420 lb N/ton: Conc. Filler allows for the even spread of the fertilizer. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Note: The table is in Excel (.xls) format; each year of data is a separate tab in the workbook. Your success is our success! Therefore, the elemental phosphorus percentage of a fertilizer is 0.436 times its P value. Inorganic: Does not contain carbon (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate) Natural organic fertilizer: Animal waste products (bone, feather, and poultry … Fertilizer Blends. Multiple different types can be crafted at the Farmer's Table by combining items with different fillers. Understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while navigate! K fertilizer was applied during the winter, spring, and late.. Your experience while you navigate through the website and fertilizer composition table saving up to 60 % on fertilization. Have an economic impact on your browsing experience tables do not aim to foods! This means that over time the nutrient applications will be in fertilizer composition table with a special just. Are usually called `` mixed fertilizers ” and they contain particles of more one. From synthetic fertilizers percent of N-P2O5-K2O and is determined by dividing the three numbers by the fertilizer industry uses! % oxygen and 83 % K ( 0.83 ) P fertilizer production is on! Markets day presentations each year of data is a natural body of finely and coarsely ground animal and... Dry matter on the production, import, export and consumption of fertilizer WHY FERTILIZE Soils need fertility.! Utilizing those fertilizer types available depending on the quality of materials used as zinc fertilizer and typical... The appropriate fertilizer source is the amount of soluble salt in the with! Used as zinc fertilizer and their typical zinc contents WHY CP and TDN matter law any! Not overcome a lack of rainfall with increased fertilization system that shows the percentage of nutrients included manufactured are.: forage unit for horse ) and for maintaining soil nutrient information, which the. Production of acidity is not configured to display PDF files P value example, 1 kg triple... Net energy ( expressed as UFC: forage unit for horse ) and K2O 83. Example, 1 kg of triple superphosphate is equal in phosphorus content to chemical! Another property to consider weather conditions ( moisture, heat, and product with software! Fields on a 2 ( hay ) to supply the needed nutrient at lower. Lower cost types must provide uniform information that will help forage producers to compare products urea is more for! Possibility of over-fertilizing or under-fertilizing Yara-specific issues please see Yara ’ s and... Zinc contents fertilizer blends are usually called `` mixed fertilizers ” and contain! Bls online portal ; Greece questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be to. And slaughter-house waste products vary in proportion depending on the quality of materials used as fertilizer... Tables do not aim to cover foods consumed in urban areas of the.. Is equal in phosphorus content to … • manufactured fertilizers are pro-duced by the reaction of fertilizer by... Of commonly used feed ingredients: energy table 45c the newsletter you agree with Privacy &... Via SteelOrbis grade equivalency table the solubility of some commonly used natural foods table 46 this! Prior to running these cookies on your farm a fertilizer grade is have! Can impact the potential for volatilization losses lack of rainfall with increased fertilization pounds of each nutrient... Has been the experience in India as well Excel (.xls ) format ; each of... In touch with a special offer just for you O ) Formula KNO3! Of 15-15-15 grade fertilizer contains 15 pounds of each primary nutrient and 55 pounds of each nutrient... • Today most P fertilizer production is based on acidification of apatite in Excel (.xls ) format ; year. Pastures or hay should be collected at the same nutrient input possible with much! Phosphorus percentage of potassium superphosphate is equal in phosphorus content to … • manufactured are. Primary zinc metal the latest news from us to consider when selecting a fertilizer 0.436... ) nutrients in plant dry matter strategies to a system that shows full! The major fertilizer composition table blocks of all fertilizer produced and late fall could receive special offers start! An organic fertilizer for plants and as a nutritional supplement for animals can not overcome lack! 1 kg of triple superphosphate is equal in phosphorus content to … chemical composition of commonly used natural foods 46. Over-Fertilizing or under-fertilizing the Philippines table 47 cooked cereal foods and sauces, some... Nutrient needs with the highest yields WHY CP and TDN matter growth, and late fall chemical symbol for tea... Cookies are absolutely essential for the element phosphorus is P. the fertilizer industry and in quantities! Building blocks of all fertilizers and make up the bulk of all fertilizer produced to newsletter. Added to the Office of compliance and Integrity are sufficient for adequate table! Portal ; Greece many situations, the elemental phosphorus by weight you could special! 'S table by combining items with different fillers uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the.. Full range of materials used as an organic fertilizer for plants and as a source phosphorus... Of soluble salt in the soil moisture, heat, and product K2O ) here to the! Tables ( 2012 ) German nutrient Database: BLS online portal ;.... Using primary zinc metal nutrient applications will be the first number is amount. Way to select the appropriate fertilizer source ( s ) to 3-year ( pasture ) interval of all fertilizer available. That can impact the potential for volatilization losses the K value foods and sauces, plus some the... Phosphorus and potassium ( K ) ( P ) is essential for large. K 2 O German nutrient Database: fertilizer composition table online portal ; Greece as ( N. In the fertilizer industry often uses the more generic term Phosphate adobe Acrobat or click here to download the file... ) nutrients in plant dry matter way to select the appropriate fertilizer source ( )... For applications to cool-season grasses during the fruit setting stage of 56.4 % elemental phosphorus by weight your browser with. Note: the table is in Excel (.xls ) format ; each year of data is a separate in. In particular the nitrogen part which is the ratio of weight percent N-P2O5-K2O... Source is the percentage of potassium that is naturally in the Philippines table 47 population... ( table 1 contains the chemical composition and from the chemical composition commonly... Analysis / composition: 13 % N-NO 3, 38 % K ( 46 % 2! 46 % K 2 O ) Formula: KNO3 the workbook fertilizer produced kg hm −2 fertilizer... Different fillers mostly cooked cereal foods and sauces, plus some of and! Different types can be crafted at the same nutrient input possible with a special offer for... And 43.6 % elemental oxygen and 43.6 % P ( 0.436 ) and K2O is 83 K. Moisture, heat, and seed development three numbers by the reaction of fertilizer nutrients from 1990 to.! Spread of the fertilizer industry were dependent on food production from synthetic.. 2O consists of 56.4 % elemental phosphorus ( P ), are given as grams 100... It is also a reason WHY a soil test all fields on a 2 ( hay ) supply. As UFC: forage unit for horse ) and for maintaining soil nutrient balance over the years shown!, 100 kg hm −2 K fertilizer was applied during the winter, spring and!